Amir Habib Jamal
- Civilian Order of Bravery of the United Republic of Tanzania
- University of Upsalla
- Doctorate of Philosophy (Social Science)
- Public Service
Born in 1922 Dar es Salaam
આ વાર્તાના ગુજરાતી અનુવાદ વાંચવા માટે નીચે સ્ક્રોલ કરો'
Amir Habib Jamal held many high posts in Tanzania, including Finance Minister and later served as internationally as a major advocate for the Developing world.He represented the parliamentary constituency of Morogoro from 1960 to 1985 and was Tanzania's longest-serving Finance Minister leading the ministry for about 12 years
He was educated in his hometown of Mwanza and pursued his secondary education in Dar es Salaam. He graduated from the University of Calcutta in India with a BCom in Economics.
In 1942, he attended a meeting of the Indian National Congress where Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement, demanding the immediate withdrawal of the British from India.
After university in 1943, like most Khojas of his age, Amir joined his family's import/export business in Dar-es salaam and later expanded it into prefabricated concrete and knitwear industries. But, like his father Habib Jamal, Amir was attracted to public service, having attended many Indian National Congress meetings in India (one of his fondest memories was of the 1942 Congress meeting in Bombay, where Mahatma Gandhi gave the call to the British to "Quit India") and so, in 1950, Amir helped to found the Asian Association and later edited it's publication, "The Tanganyikan".
"In 1950 the Asian leaders of Dar es Salaam responded to the post-war nationalism by forming a new political organization, the Asian Association. Designed to replace the older Indian Association, the new organization was more overtly political and more concerned with African interests. Unlike its counterparts in Kenya, it was a colony-wide organization with branches in the other urban centres. It also retained its Muslim members."
"Among the twenty founders were the businessmen Amir Habib Jamal, Akberali Abdulhusein Adamjee and Dahyabhai Kalyanbhai Patel, the barristers Kantilal Laxmichand Jhaveri and Mahmud Nasser Rattansey, and the accountant and company director Jayantilal Keshavji Chande."
"Leading the liberal wing of Asian politics in Tanganyika, they were distinguished men representative of all age groups and nearly all segments of the Asian community."
QUEST FOR EQUALITY - Asian Politics In East Africa. 1900-1967 by Robert G. Gregory (pg 155)
He first met Julius Nyerere in 1952 at a reception hosted by the British Council in honour of the latter's return as a graduate of Edinburgh University.
Amir, however, was not comfortable with sectarian politics and story is told, that, in 1957, on a Dar es Salaam street, he introduced himself to Julius Nyerere, the leader of the African independence movement and gave him him 100 pounds as his contribution for Nyerere's forthcoming trip to the UN, to plead for independence. So began his lifelong friendship and political association with one of Africa's most charismatic and incorruptible leaders.
In September, 1958, Amir successfully contested the TANU-backed 'Asian' seat of the Eastern Province (Morogoro) constituency in the first ever colonial election to the Legislative Council. He thereafter remained an undefeated Member of Parliament from Morogoro until his retirement from national politics in 1985! (Amir's utter integrity, dedication and selfless service and his great ability and personal goodness were recognized throughout Tanzania and he was repeatedly elected unopposed, with ever-increasing majorities from predominantly African constituencies.)
In 1959, he was immediately appointed a colonial cabinet minister and thereafter remained a minister in free Tanzania until 1983, heading many ministries, including Finance Minister, often being named to posts or ministries needing difficult management and self-less commitment.
"In 1959 another instance of Asian-African co-operation in publishing was initiated by Nyerere. With two African as¬sociates, Paul Bomani and Rashidi Kawawa, and his Asian friend Amir Jamal, Nyerere asked the Kenya journalist Haroun Ahmed, who at that time was teaching school in Nairobi, to assist in developing the nationalist press. Ahmed was entrusted with the establishment and management of three newspapers: the National Weekly in English; Wananchi (The People) in Kiswahili; and Nootan Africa (New Africa) in Gujarati. The trio ran for nearly two years and then collapsed because of a dearth of advertising and lack of promised capital."
QUEST FOR EQUALITY - Asian Politics In East Africa. 1900-1967 by Robert G. Gregory (pg 162)
Some of the highlights of his contributions to independent Tanzania were:
1.1967 to 1970, Amir led the Tanzanian team to China to successfully conclude the agreement to finance and build the $1 billion TAZARA railway, a new route-way connecting Zambia with the port of Dar es Salaam (and away from the then apartheid and colonial regimes in Rhodesia, South Africa & Mozambique)
2.He steered the establishment of the Central Bank, the National Bank of Commerce and the National Insurance Corporation and the Tanzania Audit Corporation.
3.He led the Tanzania negotiation team for the Treaty for East African Co-operation, which established the East African Community with Uganda and Kenya.
Nyerere described him as ‘a person of absolute integrity dedicated to selfless service; he was never a ‘Yes man'; he argued for the measures he felt necessary or opposed others which he felt were mistaken; he groomed for leadership those who worked with him; he was a Tanzanian of whom we can be proud’.1
In 1979, he was made a member of the Brandt Commission and then served as Personal Representative of Chairman Julius Nyerere on the South Commission and then on the South Centre and the Dag Hammarskjold Foundation of Uppsala, Sweden.
As a Tanzanian ambassador to the UN Agencies from 1988-1993, through a crucial period of the Uruguay Round negotiations, Amir tried hard to safeguard the interests of the developing countries and especially of the least developed. His great ability and dedication were recognized not only by fellow Ambassadors from South and North, but by a wider community of officials and non-governmental organizations as he was appointed to the following posts during his time.
1. September 1977: Chaired the Pre-UNCTAD Group of '77' meeting in Arusha, Tanzania
2. September 1980 Chairman of the Joint Annual Meetings of the Board of Governors of IMF and IBRD, Washington, D.C.
3. June 1982: Elected member of Governing Council of the Society for International Development
4. 1983: Appointed member of the UNITAR Advisory Panel on Research
5. April 1984: Member of Group of Five, Non-Aligned Movement to examine questions of International Money, Finance and Development
6. 1984 Appointed Member of the Board of International Centre for Development, Vienna, Austria
7. 1985: Appointed Member of the World Advisory Group of the World Institute of Development Economics Research, Helsinki
8. 1986: Elected Chairman, Board of Directors of Inter Press Service Third World, Rome
9. Elected Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of the Group of 77 for UNCTAD VII
10. Elected Chairman of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GAIT) Council, Geneva
11. 1988: Elected Chairman, Executive Committee of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva
12. Elected Chairman of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GAIT) Contracting Parties
13. 1990: Appointed 'ad interim' Honorary Executive Director, "South Centre", Geneva
14. 1992: Appointed Member of the World Telecommunications Advisory Council
15. 1993:Appointed Director of the Board of Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI), Ottawa, Canada.
In 1995, Amir retired to Canada, to spend time with his family but died in Vancouver shortly after.
He married twice and had three sons and one daughter.
1. Tribute from Mwalimu Nyerere & the South Institute
2. Tribute from a fellow Ambassador at the UN.
REMEMBERING Dr. AMIR HABIB JAMAL: THE MULTI-FACETED GENIUS WHO WAS MWALIMU JK NYERERE'S CLOSEST FRIEND & MOST TRUSTED MINISTER!!!
By MZEE WA ATIKALI ✍️✍️✍️
"Amir was a Key ally of "Baba wa Taifa". He had more formal and informal one to one meetings with "Baba wa Taifa " than any other Minister".
Ms JOAN WICKEN, former Personal Secretary to MWALIMU, March 25, 1995.
Twenty Six (26) years ago today, Hon. Dr. AMIR HABIB JAMAL, a Tanzanian of Indian origin, bid adieu to the world at the age of 73. His courageous heart stopped on March 21, 1995 in Canada.
The late Hon. Dr. AMIR HABIB JAMAL was an intellectual of the highest calibre and the First Non-Black Tanganyikan to be a member of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). AMIR worked hand in glove with Mwalimu JULIUS KAMBARAGE NYERERE and many "Bongolanderz" to fight for the independence of Tanganyika.
The late Dr. AMIR HABIB JAMAL, who was Mwalimu NYERERE's closest friend, was a patriot par excellence and no wonder thus, on Friday March 19, 2021, Prof. ISSA SHIVJI wrote to MZEE WA ATIKALI to the effect that the late Dr. AMIR was-:
"Quiet, hardworking and extremely loyal to Mwalimu but firm in his opinions. A thinking, not a demagogic, patriot. He shared with the first generation African nationalists a clear, long term vision of development for their countries".
This ATIKALI is, therefore, a special tribute to this intellectual giant who was a truly remarkable man. It aims at celebrating his life and achievements, on the occasion of his 26th Death Anniversary.
2. AMIR: The Early Years
2.1 Birth Date & Place
AMIR HABIB JAMAL was born on Thursday, January 26, 1922 in Mwanza, Tanganyika. He was born to Gujarat parents of Indian ancestry namely Mr. HABIB JAMAL and Ms KULSUM THAWER who were also born in Tanganyika.
2.2 AMIR Attains Primary & Secondary Education in Tanganyika
AMIR attained his primary education in his home town of Mwanza and later pursued his secondary education in Dsm. AMIR was an extremely brilliant student who always passed his exams with flying colours.
3 AMIR Leaves Tanganyika for India
At the end of the 1930's, AMIR left Tanganyika for India for further studies. He enrolled at the University of Calcutta to pursue a bachelor's degree in economics.
4. AMIR Graduates Summa Cum Laude
As AMIR was a very brilliant student, he did extremely well in his studies and graduated with First Class Honours in Economics in 1942.
5. AMIR Returns to Tanganyika
Upon graduation, AMIR returned to Tanganyika in 1942 and joined the family business.
6. AMIR Marries His Cousin, Ms ZAINY
AMIR made a new step in his life when he kissed bachelorhood good-bye and married his cousin, ZAINY HUSSEIN KHERAJ, a well educated daughter of a wealthy businessman, Mr. HUSSEIN KHERAJ in a colourful wedding.
7. AMIR: A Founding Member of "AA"
In 1950, the Asian leaders in Dsm responded to the post- war nationalism by forming an association concerned with, inter alia, African interests. The association hoped for a future non-racial state in Tanganyika. Among the 20 founder members was AMIR who featured prominently in the political groundwork for independence .
8. AMIR Meets Mwalimu JK NYERERE
AMIR first met Mwalimu JK NYERERE in 1952 at a Grand Reception hosted by the British Council, Dsm in honour of MWALIMU'S return as a graduate of Edinburgh university. AMIR was hugely impressed by MWALIMU's "Thank You" speech.
9. AMIR: A Staunch TANU Supporter
After the birth of TANU on July 7, 1954, AMIR tirelessly urged his fellow Asians to support TANU. No wonder thus, Prof. RONALD AMINZADE, a US national, narrated, on October 31, 2013-:
"Despite their exclusion from membership in TANU, a number of Asian Tanganyikans were prominent in the independence struggle including Amir Jamal, Sophia Mustafa and M.N Rattansay. They argued fellow Asians to support TANU".
In the same vein, Mr. JOHN ILIFFE, a famous historian, in his book "A Modern History of Tanganyika", stated-:
"Amir Jamal, a businessman who was educated in India, was a bitter critic of British rule".
10. MWALIMU Frequently Visits AMIR
AMIR's father had a shop styled "HABIB & Co. Impoters" located at Market street near Morogoro rd. MWALIMU used to visit AMIR almost daily at the shop where there were many meetings between these two young friends. At the end of these meetings, AMIR's cousin brother, AMIR HUSSEIN KHERAJI, would usually be directed by his father to give MWALIMU a ride back home (Magomeni).
11. AMIR Helps MWALIMU Financially
11.1 MWALIMU's Visit to UN in 1955
In February 1955, AMIR was among those who contributed financially enabling Mwalimu NYERERE to go to the United Nations to deliver a speech on Tanganyika's independence. AMIR gave MWALIMU £ 100, an astronomical amount then, as his contribution.
11.2. MWALIMU's Sedition case in 1958
Mwalimu NYERERE's leadership of TANU was vibrant and he used to confront the British colonists head on.
TANU had a newspaper "SAUTI YA WATU". On May 7, 1958, MWALIMU wrote, in the said newspaper, an ATIKALI criticising, in no uncertain terms, two colonial DCs namely Hon. F.B WEEKS and Hon. G.T SCOTS "Maharamia na Wajinga".
Thus, on July 9, 1958, MWALIMU was charged with Sedition (Regina Vs JULIUS NYERERE, CC 2207/1958) dubbed "The Trial of the Century in Tanganyika".
Considering the status of MWALIMU in the society, the trial court was always jam-packed!. MWALIMU was represented by a formidable panel of lawyers ie DN PRITTY, MM RATTANSAY and KL JHAVER. As neither MWALIMU nor TANU could afford to pay for the legal services of these expensive lawyers, AMIR and his friends helped in funding this defence team.
The judgement was delivered on August 13, 1958 by Hon. A.L DAVIES. MWALIMU was convicted but avoided a 6-month jail term after paying a TZS 3,000/= fine. AMIR was there again to lend a helping hand, alongside some other rich "Bongolanderz" who were TANU members such as DOSSA AZIZ "the Bank", JOHN RUPIA, the SYKES family etc who actually paid the biggest chunk of the fine. As a result of this gesture, Mwalimu NYERERE coined the following phrase "The TANU Spirit"!.
13. AMIR Elected to LegCO
In 1958, AMIR became a candidate for the Legislative Council (LegCo). AMIR was with Mwalimu NYERERE and GRAHAM LEWIS when they received news of the election results in September 1958. AMIR successfully contested the TANU-backed "Asian" seat of the Eastern Province (Morogoro) constituency. He won the seat with 2,672 votes against 610 and 153 votes of 2 Asians who stood as private candidates. A photographer snapped the iconic photo of jubilant MWALIMU holding the hand of LEWIS (wearing all white) to his right and AMIR to his left.
14. Hon. JAMAL: The only Asian in MWALIMU's First Cabinet
Mwalimu NYERERE's First Cabinet, following the August-September 1960 General elections, comprised 7 Africans, 4 Europeans and 1 Asian; the One and Only AMIR JAMAL!.
15. Hon. JAMAL Becomes the First Non-African TANU Member
On January 17, 1963, the TANU Annual Conference decided to approve a Resolution opening up party membership to all races after years of intense debate within the party.
On the same day, Hon. OSCAR SATHIEL KAMBONA, the then Minister of Home Affairs and Secretary General of TANU, presented Hon. JAMAL, then Minister of Communications & Works, with a TANU Card No. 487, 382 thereby becoming the First person not Black to be a Member of TANU!.
16. Hon. JAMAL Appointed Minister of Finance
After the September 30, 1965 General elections, H.E President NYERERE appointed Hon. AMIR JAMAL Minister for Finance.
17. Hon. JAMAL' s Second Wedding
In 1967, Hon. JAMAL married another woman namely Ms SHAHSULTAN CASSAM in a colourful wedding.
18. Hon. JAMAL Appointed Minister of Indusries
In 1972, H.E President NYERERE appointed Hon. JAMAL Minister for Commerce & Indusries. In this capacity, he successfully initiated a number of industries in Morogoro region.
19. Hon. JAMAL Appointed Minister of Finance
In 1975, after the General elections, H.E President NYERERE appointed Hon. AMIR JAMAL as Minister for Finance.
20. Hon. JAMAL Appointed Minister of Communications & Transport
Following the dissolution of the former EAC in 1977, Hon. JAMAL was transferred to the Communications & Transport docket. He had an arduous task of creating new national cooperations & agencies.
21. Hon. JAMAL Appointed Minister of Finance
In 1977, H.E President NYERERE appointed Hon. JAMAL Minister of Finance after the resignation of Hon. EDWIN MTEI.
22. Hon. JAMAL Shocks IMF Staff
Hon. JAMAL served as Chair of the 35th Annual Meetings of the IMF & WB in 1980.
A brilliant Intellectual, Dr. JAMAL, upon his arrival in Washington, DC was surprised when IMF staff presented him with a Draft for his opening speech. He politely declined telling them that he was not a parrot, as he had already prepared his own speech. It was unprecedented and the IMF staff were visibly shocked!.
23. Hon. JAMAL Serves as TZ Ambassador to UN, GENEVA
Hon. JAMAL was appointed by H.E President MWINYI as TZ's Ambassador to the United Nations, Geneva in 1985. He thus moved from his modest Sea View house which was close to that of "MZEE WA ATIKALI's parents, to a state of the art bungalow in Geneva. He served until 1993 when he retired from foreign service.
24. Hon. JAMAL Becomes MWALIMU's Personal Representative
Hon. JAMAL's close working relationship with MWALIMU continued as he became his personal representative when MWALIMU was Chair of the South Commission and then on the South centre.
25. Hon. JAMAL Retires, Moves to Canada
In early 1995, Hon. JAMAL, retired and moved to Vancouver, Canada to spend time with his family.
26. Hon. JAMAL's Health Deteriorates
Hon. JAMAL was diagnosed with cancer hence his health deteriorated alarmingly. Consequently, MWALIMU went to visit his sick friend in Vancouver, Canada. MWALIMU even tried to ask the Prime Minister, JAMES PIERRE TRUDEAU, son of his friend former PM PIERRE TRUDEAU to assist Hon. JAMAL access medical care as the UN Health Insurance was inadequate. In the same vein, Prof. SAIDA YAHYA-OTHMAN says-:
"When Jamal's illness put a strain on his resources, the UN Health Insurance not quite meeting his needs, Nyerere was quick to offer assistance to his friend".
Unfortunately, this initiative came rather late.
27. Hon. JAMAL Breathes His Last
Hon. JAMAL died on March 21, 1995 in Canada. Hon. JAMAL who had married twice, had three sons and one daughter.
28. Mwalimu NYERERE Weeps Openly
Mwalimu NYERERE, upon hearing of the death of his longtime buddy, broke down, wept openly and bitterly. This was one of the few times MWALIMU was seen weeping in public.
The first time he was seen shedding tears in public was during the 21-26th January 1958 Conference in Tabora convened by TANU. This Conference almost split the party into two over the decision to accept the tripartite voting method ( European, Asian & African) which had been introduced by the colonial Govt. There were 2 main camps whose push & pull threatened the very survival of the party itself!. One camp was of moderates led by MWALIMU who wanted TANU to participate in the elections and the Conservatives who wanted TANU to boycot the elections. MWALIMU asked TANU members to accept it and urged many Non-Africans to support TANU eg SOPHIA MUSTAPHA, Lady MARION CHASHAM, AMIR JAMAL, DEREK BYCESON. This was an herculean task and MWALIMU had to put extra efforts to convince delegates. Finally, the moderates emerged victorious (37 votes for and 23 against).
MWALIMU was also seen weeping openly on April 12, 1984 after receiving the body of the late EDWARD MORINGE SOKOINE, a man of the people, at the State House, Dsm.
29. MWALIMU's Tribute to Hon. JAMAL
The late Hon. JAMAL' s exemplary and unwavering devotion to his country, Tanzania, as well as his extraordinary career, commanded a befitting tribute.
And who else to deliver it, other than Mwalimu JK NYERERE, his closest friend?
MWALIMU, in a touching Tribute to his departed lifelong friend, stated-:
"Amir was a fine human being, a very good man. He was a person of absolute integrity. He was a man of principle dedicated to selfless service. These qualities, combined with his great intellectual ability, means that as senior minister in every post independent Government until 1985, Amir was an active participant in all Tanzania's political, social and economic advances throughout the period. As Tanzania's Ambassador to the UN, he worked tirelessly for the interests of our country and all developing countries. Amir was never a "Yes" man. In Cabinet, in Government or Party Committees, he vehemently argued for the measures he felt necessary and he vehemently opposed those he felt were mistaken. But he was also a democrat and a person who respected others. He groomed for leadership those who worked under him. No wonder so many Principal Secretaries succeeded him as Ministers. Amir was a Tanzanian of whom we can be proud of. I WAS PRIVILEGED TO COUNT HIM A FRIEND".
MWALIMU's efforts to have Hon JAMAL' s remains to be repatriated to Tanzania were in vain. Hon JAMAL was laid to rest peacefully in Canada.
30. MWALIMU Rarely said NO to Hon. JAMAL
Mwalimu NYERERE had the greatest confidence, admiration and trust in Hon. JAMAL.
The following statement by Ambassador JUMA VOLTER MWAPACHU, made on March 15, 2021, is testament to that and shows how close Mwalimu NYERERE and AMIR were-:
"My late brother, Harrith Bakari Mwapachu "HB", headed Air Tanzania Cooperation from January 1981 to August 1986. It was Amir Jamal who convinced Mwalimu Nyerere to appoint Harrith to lead the airline business".
31. Hon. JAMAL: The Longest Serving Minister of Finance in TZ's History
Hon. JAMAL is the longest serving Minister of Finance in Tanzania's history as he led the said Ministry for about 12 years .
32. Hon. JAMAL's Integrity was Unimprachable
Hon. JAMAL had sharp political instincts and as a public servant, he never did anything for political expediency. No wonder thus, Mwalimu NYERERE said on August 17, 1992-:
"Rashid na Amir ni miongoni mwa watu waaminifu sana duniani. Kama mtu anadai hao si waaminifu, basi hata neno "Uaminifu" halina maana yoyote".
Hon. JAMAL was, indeed a person of absolute integrity.
33. Hon. JAMAL was MP for the Morogoro Constituency from 1958 to 1985
Hon. JAMAL was continually being re-elected to the National Assembly by his Morogoro constituency despite the fact that members of his racial group comprised less than 1% of the population. This is because almost all Morogorians admired and loved him so much!.
34 Hon. JAMAL: MWALIMU JK NYERERE'S CLOSEST FRIEND & MOST TRUSTED LIEUTENANT
"Baba wa Taifa " had many, many friends. However, it is well documented that Hon. JAMAL was Mwalimu NYERERE's closest friend. The following quotes are a testament to that:
34.1 The late JOAN WICKEN
"Amir was a key ally of "Baba wa Taifa". He had more formal and informal one to one meetings with "Baba wa Taifa" than any other Minister".
34.2 The late Rev. ERNEST TREVOR
"No one in his life in politics had a closer relationship with Mwalimu Nyerere than did Amir Jamal".
34.2 Mr. GODFREY MWAKIKAGILE-
"Hon. Amir Jamal was the most knowledgeable and the most Intellectual Cabinet Minister in the First Independence Cabinet, besides Mwalimu Nyerere. He was a close friend of Nyerere".
34.3 The late Sir GEORGE KAHAMA-
"The late Amir Jamal was an Intellectual giant who was highly respected by Mwalimu and all of us for his diplomacy, his down to earthness and outspoken approach to local and international affairs. It was always intellectually stimulating to discuss global issues with him".
34.4 The late Prof. SEITH CHACHAGE-
"Hon. Jamal was gentle, liberal-minded and extremely astitute administrator. The qualities which he and Mwalimu recognized in each other's idealism, thoughtfulness and open hearted friendship sealed a partnership that lasted since they first met".
34.5 Hon. JOSEPH SINDE WARIOBA
"One of Mwalimu Nyerere's long time political collaborators and close friends was a Tanzanian of Indian origin, Amir Jamal".
34.6 The late SIR ANDY CHANDE-:
" Hon. Amir Jamal, a Tanzanian of Indian origin, was a Confidant of Mwalimu Nyerere. Their close relationship was forged when Amir helped in funding Mwalimu's defence team in the notorious Sedition case of 1958".
34.7 The late Prof. G. MPANGALA
"Amir Jamal, who, in his hey day, was one of Tanzania's most respected figures, was Mwalimu's closest friend. Amir was a brilliant academic and an engaging public intellectual. He was a genius".
34.8 Prof. SAIDA YAHYA- OTHMAN
"Of Mwalimu Nyerere's colleagues in the Cabinet, it is likely that Mwalimu was closest to Amir Jamal. Amir was a frequent visitor to Msasani. While in Geneva, when Mwalimu Nyerere was there to chair meetings, he would insist on staying with the Jamals, so other guests had to find alternative accommodation".
35. Some of the Highlights of Hon. JAMAL's Contribution to His Beloved Country
35.1 Hon. JAMAL steered Establishment of the BANK OF TANZANIA
The Bank of Tanzania was established on June 14, 1966. As the then Minister of Finance, Hon. JAMAL, alongside Hon. EDWIN MTEI who was the Principal Secretary then, played a leading role in the establishment of the said Bank. Since its inception in 1966, the Bank has issued a series of notes & couns. Hon. JAMAL was the first Minister of Finance in Tanzania to inscribe his signature on new banknotes after the collapse of the East African Currency Board.
35.2 Hon. JAMAL Steered establishment of the National Bank of Commerce (NBC) in 1967.
35.3 Between 1967-70, Hon. JAMAL led the TZ Team to China to successfully conclude the Agreement to finance and build the $ 1 Billion TAZARA Railway.
35.4 Hon. JAMAL led the TZ Negotiation Team for the Treaty for East African cooperation which established the EAC in 1967.
35.5 On February 6,1967, Hon. JAMAL surprised investors and industrialists especially the Big 3 (National bank, Glindlays bank & Backlays bank) with the government decision to nationalise all banks without prior notice as it was announced to them that their power was ending at the close of business of the very same day!.
35.6 Hon. JAMAL mentored many, many Bongolanders especially those who were under him such as Hon. CLEOPA DAVID MSUYA.
36. The Late Hon. JAMAL Posthumously Awarded by H.E JK
On April 26, 2014, the late Dr. JAMAL was posthumously awarded by H.E President Dr. JAKAYA KIKWETE "The Order of Union First Class" in recognition of his outstanding contribution to protecting and preserving the Union.
The late Hon. Dr. AMIR HABIB JAMAL had a distinguished political career as well as an outstanding diplomatic career. He was an illustrious son of the soil and always put Tanzania's interests before his own.
During Mwalimu NYERERE's presidency, MWALIMU would swiftly shuffle this intellectual giant into several ministries that he felt were non performing or lagging. Once he got them back on track, MWALIMU would reinstate him as Minister of Finance. In sync with that, Prof. SAIDA YAHYA- OTHMAN adds-:
"Nyerere trusted Hon. Jamal so much that in the Cabinet Reshuffles he undertook, Hon. Jamal was often placed in the most trouble-prone ministries".
Hon. AMIR was an Extraordinary Mentor, a Towering Intellectual of the Highest Calibre who kept Tanzania's flag flying high on the international scene. He was Mwalimu's JK NYERERE'S closest friend.
38. Food for Thought
In the light of the late President JPM's recent directive which puts new emphasis on the teaching of the country's history in all our primary & secondary level educational institutions; _"MZEE WA ATIKALI"_ is encouraged to suggest that the late Dr. AMIR HABIB JAMAL' s leadership legacy deserves to be given some prominent space in the new history teaching materials that are presently under preparation, especially bearing in mind he was the first Non-Black Tanganyikan to be a Member of TANU.
What do you think?
The ball is in your court!.
અમીર હબિબ જમાલે તાંઝાનિયામાં ઘણા ઉચ્ચ હોદ્દાઓ ધરાવતા હતા, જેમાં નાણાં પ્રધાનનો સમાવેશ થાય છે અને બાદમાં તે વિકાસશીલ વિશ્વ માટે એક મુખ્ય વકીલ તરીકે આંતરરાષ્ટ્રીય સ્તરે સેવા આપતો હતો. તેમણે 1960 થી 1985 સુધી મોરોગોરોની સંસદીય મતવિસ્તારનું પ્રતિનિધિત્વ કર્યું હતું અને તાંઝાનિયાના સૌથી લાંબા સમયથી સેવા આપતા નાણા પ્રધાન મંત્રાલયને આશરે 12 વર્ષ
તેમણે મ્વૅન્ઝાના તેમના વતનમાં શિક્ષણ મેળવ્યું હતું અને દર એ સલામમાં તેમનું માધ્યમિક શિક્ષણ અપનાવ્યું હતું. તેમણે ભારતના કલકત્તા યુનિવર્સિટીમાંથી સ્નાતક થયા.
1942 માં, તેમણે ઇન્ડિયન નેશનલ કોંગ્રેસની એક બેઠકમાં હાજરી આપી હતી જેમાં મહાત્મા ગાંધીએ ભારત છોડો, ભારતમાંથી બ્રિટિશ તાત્કાલિક પાછો ખેંચવાની માગણી કરી હતી.
1943 માં યુનિવર્સિટી પછી, તેમની ઉંમરના મોટાભાગના ખોજોની જેમ, અમીર દેરસ સલેમમાં તેમના પરિવારના આયાત / નિકાસ વ્યવસાયમાં જોડાયા અને બાદમાં તેને પ્રિફેબ્રિકેટેડ કોંક્રિટ અને નીટવેર ઉદ્યોગોમાં વિસ્તરણ કર્યું. પરંતુ, તેમના પિતા હબિબ જમલની જેમ, અમીર જાહેર સેવા તરફ આકર્ષિત થયા હતા, તેમણે ભારતની અનેક ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કૉંગ્રેસની બેઠકોમાં હાજરી આપી હતી (તેમની એક સૌથી યાદગાર યાદીઓ બોમ્બેમાં 1942 ની કૉંગ્રેસની બેઠક હતી, જ્યાં મહાત્મા ગાંધીએ બ્રિટિશને " ભારત છોડો ") અને તેથી, 1 9 50 માં, અમીરએ એશિયાઇ એસોસિએશનને શોધવામાં મદદ કરી અને પાછળથી તે પ્રકાશનનું સંપાદન કર્યું," ધ ટાંગાનિકન "
"1950 માં દર એ સલામના એશિયન નેતાઓએ એક નવી રાજકીય સંગઠન, એશિયન એસોસિએશનની રચના કરીને યુદ્ધ પછીના રાષ્ટ્રવાદને પ્રતિક્રિયા આપી. જૂની ભારતીય એસોસિએશનને બદલવા માટે રચવામાં આવ્યું હતું, નવા સંગઠન આફ્રિકન હિતોથી વધુ રાજકીય અને વધુ સંબંધિત હતું. કેન્યાના તેના સમકક્ષોથી વિપરીત, તે અન્ય શહેરી કેન્દ્રોમાં શાખાઓ ધરાવતી વસાહત ધરાવતી સંસ્થા હતી અને તેના મુસ્લિમ સભ્યોને પણ જાળવી રાખ્યા હતા. "
"વીસ સ્થાપકોમાં ઉદ્યોગપતિ અમીર હબીબ જમાલ, અકબરલી અબ્દુલહુસિંન આદમજી અને દહાયભાઇ કલ્યાણભાઈ પટેલ, બેન્સ્ટ્સ કન્ટીલાલ લક્ષ્મીચંદ ઝવેરી અને મહમુદ નાસર રત્નસે, અને એકાઉન્ટન્ટ અને કંપની ડિરેક્ટર જયંતીલાલ કેશવજી ચાંડે હતા."
"તાંગાનિકાકામાં એશિયન રાજકારણના ઉદાર પક્ષના અગ્રણી, તેઓ બધા વય જૂથો અને એશિયન સમુદાયોના લગભગ તમામ સેગમેન્ટોના પુરુષો પ્રતિનિધિ હતા."
સમાનતા માટેના પ્રશ્નો - પૂર્વ આફ્રિકામાં એશિયન રાજનીતિ રોબર્ટ જી. ગ્રેગોરી (પૃષ્ઠ 155) દ્વારા 1900-19 67
તેમણે એડિનબર્ગ યુનિવર્સિટીના ગ્રેજ્યુએટ તરીકે, 1952 માં બ્રિટીશ કાઉન્સિલ દ્વારા યોજાયેલી રિસેપ્શનમાં જુલિયસ નાઇરેરે પ્રથમ વખત મળ્યું હતું.
અમીર, સાંપ્રદાયિક રાજકારણ સાથે સંતુષ્ટ ન હતો અને વાર્તા કહેવામાં આવે છે કે, 1 9 57 માં, દર ઍસ સલમ સ્ટ્રીટ પર, તેમણે પોતાની જાતને આફ્રિકન સ્વતંત્રતા ચળવળના નેતા જુલિયસ નાયરેરે રજૂ કરી હતી અને તેમને તેમના યોગદાન તરીકે 100 પાઉન્ડ આપ્યા હતા. ન્યરેરેની યુએનની આગામી યાત્રા માટે, સ્વતંત્રતા માટે આજીજી કરવી તેથી આફ્રિકાના સૌથી પ્રભાવશાળી અને અવિનાશી નેતાઓ પૈકીના એક સાથે તેમની આજીવન મિત્રતા અને રાજકીય સંગઠનની શરૂઆત કરી.
સપ્ટેમ્બર, 1958 માં, આમિરે લેજિસ્લેટિવ કાઉન્સિલની સૌપ્રથમ વારસાગત ચૂંટણીમાં પૂર્વીય પ્રાંતના (મોરોગોરો) મતવિસ્તારની ટેનુ-સમર્થિત 'એશિયાઇ' બેઠક સફળતાપૂર્વક લડી હતી. ત્યારબાદ તેમણે 1985 માં રાષ્ટ્રીય રાજકારણમાંથી તેમની નિવૃત્તિ સુધી મોરોગોરોનના સંસદસભ્ય સભ્ય બન્યા હતા! (અમીરની સંપૂર્ણ પ્રામાણિકતા, સમર્પણ અને નિઃસ્વાર્થ સેવા અને તાંઝાનિયામાં તેમની મહાન ક્ષમતા અને વ્યક્તિગત ભલાઈને માન્યતા આપવામાં આવી હતી અને તે વારંવાર આફ્રિકન મતવિસ્તારમાંથી સતત વધી રહેલા મોટા ભાગની સાથે, બિનસંશોધનભર ચૂંટાઈ આવ્યા હતા.)
1959 માં તેમને તાત્કાલિક એક વસાહતી કેબિનેટ મંત્રી તરીકે નિયુક્ત કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા અને ત્યારબાદ 1983 સુધી મફત તાંઝાનિયામાં મંત્રી બન્યા હતા, નાણામંત્રી સહિત અનેક મંત્રાલયોનું નેતૃત્વ કરતો, ઘણી વખત પોસ્ટ્સ અથવા મંત્રાલયોને મુશ્કેલ સંચાલન અને આત્મ-ઓછી પ્રતિબદ્ધતાની જરૂર હોવાનું નામ આપવામાં આવ્યું હતું.
"1959 માં પ્રસિધ્ધ એશિયન-આફ્રિકન સહકારનું બીજું એક ઉદાહરણ નૈરેરે દ્વારા શરૂ કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું.બે અફ્રીકનના સાથીઓ, પોલ બોમાની અને રશીદી કાવાવા અને તેમના એશિયન મિત્ર અમીર જમાલ સાથે, નાયરેરે કેન્યાના પત્રકાર હારુન અહમદને પૂછ્યું હતું કે, રાષ્ટ્રવાદી પ્રેસના વિકાસમાં સહાયતા માટે, નૈરોબીમાં શાળાને શિક્ષણ આપવું સમય હતો.આહમદને ત્રણ અખબારોની સ્થાપના અને સંચાલન સાથે સોંપવામાં આવી હતીઃ અંગ્રેજીમાં રાષ્ટ્રીય સાપ્તાહિક; કીસ્વાહિલીમાં વાન્ાંચી (ધ પીપલ) અને ગુજરાતીમાં નુટાન આફ્રિકા (ન્યૂ આફ્રિકા). આ ત્રણેય લગભગ બે વર્ષ સુધી ચાલી હતી અને પછી જાહેરાતની અછત અને વચન પામેલા મૂડીના અભાવે ભાંગી પડી હતી. "
સમાનતા માટેના પ્રશ્નો - પૂર્વ આફ્રિકામાં એશિયન રાજનીતિ રોબર્ટ જી. ગ્રેગરી દ્વારા (પાનું 162) દ્વારા 1900-19 67
સ્વતંત્ર તાંઝાનિયામાં તેમના યોગદાનના કેટલાક હાઇલાઇટ્સ હતા:
1. 1967 થી 1 9 70 સુધી, એમીરે તાંઝાનિયાની ટીમને ચાઇના તરફ દોરી દીધી અને $ 1 બિલિયન તઝારા રેલવેનું નિર્માણ કરવાના કરારને પૂર્ણ કરી દીધો, જે ઝામ્બિયાનો દર એ સલામ બંદર સાથે (અને તે પછીના રંગભેદ અને વસાહતી પ્રથાઓથી દૂર) રહોડ્સિયા, દક્ષિણ આફ્રિકા અને મોઝામ્બિકમાં)
2. તેણે સેન્ટ્રલ બેન્ક, નેશનલ બેન્ક ઓફ કોમર્સ અને નેશનલ ઇન્શ્યોરન્સ કોર્પોરેશન અને તાંઝાનિયા ઑડિટ કોર્પોરેશનની સ્થાપના કરી.
3. તેમણે પૂર્વ આફ્રિકન સહકાર માટે સંધિ માટે તાન્ઝાનીયા વાટાઘાટની ટીમનું નેતૃત્વ કર્યું, જેણે યુગાન્ડા અને કેન્યા સાથે પૂર્વ આફ્રિકન સમુદાયની સ્થાપના કરી.
ન્યરેરે તેમને 'નિ: સ્વાર્થી સેવા માટે સમર્પિત નિરપેક્ષ પ્રામાણિકતાના વ્યક્તિ તરીકે વર્ણવ્યા; તે 'હા માણસ' ન હતો; તેણે જરૂરી પગલાં માટે દલીલ કરી હતી અથવા અન્ય લોકોનો વિરોધ કર્યો હતો, જે તેમને ભૂલથી લાગ્યું હતું; તેમણે તેમની સાથે કામ કર્યું જેઓ નેતૃત્વ માટે પોશાક; તે તાંઝાનિયાનો હતો જેની આપણે ગૌરવ અનુભવી શકીએ છીએ '.1
1979 માં, તે બ્રાંડ્ટે કમિશનના સભ્ય બન્યા હતા અને ત્યારબાદ સાઉથ કમિશનમાં ચેરમેન જુલિયસ નાયરેરે વ્યક્તિગત પ્રતિનિધિ તરીકે સેવા આપી હતી અને ત્યારબાદ સાઉથ સેન્ટર અને ડેગ હેમરસ્કજોલ્ડ ફાઉન્ડેશન ઓફ યુપ્પસલા, સ્વિડનમાં સેવા આપી હતી.
1988-1993ના યુએન એજન્સીઓમાં તાંઝાનિયાના રાજદૂત તરીકે, ઉરુગ્વે મંત્રણાના નિર્ણાયક સમયગાળા દરમિયાન, અમીરે વિકાસશીલ દેશોના હિતો અને ખાસ કરીને ઓછામાં ઓછા વિકસિત વિકસિત હિતોના રક્ષણ માટે સખત પ્રયત્નો કર્યાં. તેમની મહાન ક્ષમતા અને સમર્પણ માત્ર દક્ષિણ અને ઉત્તરના સાથી રાજદૂતો દ્વારા જ નહીં, પરંતુ તેમના સમય દરમિયાન નીચેની પોસ્ટ્સ માટે નિમણૂંક કરવામાં આવી હોવાથી તેમના અધિકારીઓ અને બિન-સરકારી સંગઠનોના વિશાળ સમુદાય દ્વારા ઓળખવામાં આવે છે.
1. સપ્ટેમ્બર 1 9 77: અરુશા, તાંઝાનિયામાં '77' બેઠકનું પૂર્વ-અંકટાદ ગ્રુપનું આયોજન કર્યું હતું
2. સપ્ટેમ્બર 1980 આઇએમએફ અને આઇબીઆરડી, વોશિંગ્ટન, ડી.સી.ના ગવર્નર્સ બોર્ડના સંયુક્ત વાર્ષિક બેઠકોના અધ્યક્ષ
3. જૂન 1982: ગવર્નિંગ કાઉન્સિલ ઓફ સોસાયટી ફોર ઇન્ટરનેશનલ ડેવલપમેન્ટના સભ્ય
4. 1983: રિસર્ચ પર યુનિટેર એડવાઇઝરી પેનલના સભ્ય નિયુક્ત
5. એપ્રિલ 1984: ઇન્ટરનેશનલ મની, ફાઇનાન્સ અને ડેવલપમેન્ટના પ્રશ્નોની તપાસ કરવા માટે જૂથના પાંચ સભ્ય, બિન-સંલગ્ન ચળવળ
6. 1984 નિમાયેલ ઇન્ટરનેશનલ સેન્ટર ફોર ડેવલપમેન્ટ, વિયેના, ઓસ્ટ્રિયાના સભ્ય
7. 1985: વર્લ્ડ ઇન્સ્ટિટ્યુટ ઓફ ડેવલપમેન્ટ ઇકોનોમિક્સ રિસર્ચ, હેલસિંકિના વર્લ્ડ એડવાઇઝરી ગ્રૂપના નિમાયેલા સભ્ય
8. 1986: ઇંડક્ટેડ ચેરમેન, ઇન્ટર પ્રેસ સર્વિસ થર્ડ વર્લ્ડ, રોમના ડિરેક્ટર્સના બોર્ડ
9. UNCTAD VII માટે ગ્રુપ 77 ની પ્રિપેરેટરી કમિટીના ચુંટાયેલા ચેરમેન
10. જનરલ એગ્રિમેન્ટ ઓન ટેરિફ એન્ડ ટ્રેડ (જીએઆઈટી) કાઉન્સિલ, જીનીવા
11. 1988: યુનાઇટેડ નેશન્સ હાઇ કમિશનર ઑફ રેફ્યુજીસ, જિનિવાના એક્ઝિક્યુટીવ ચેરમેન, એક્ઝિક્યુટીવ કમિટી
12. ટેરિફ અને ટ્રેડ પર જનરલ એગ્રીમેન્ટના ચેરમેન (ગૈટ) કરાર પક્ષો
13. 1990: નિમણૂક 'જાહેરાત વચગાળાના' માનદ એક્ઝિક્યુટિવ ડિરેક્ટર, "દક્ષિણ કેન્દ્ર", જીનીવા
14. 1992: વર્લ્ડ ટેલિકોમ્યુનિકેશન્સ એડવાઇઝરી કાઉન્સિલના સભ્ય તરીકે નિમણૂક
15. 1993: બોર્ડ ઓફ રુરલ એડવાન્સમેન્ટ ફાઉન્ડેશન ઇન્ટરનેશનલ (આરએએફઆઇ), ઓટાવા, કેનેડા
1 99 5 માં, અમીર પોતાના પરિવાર સાથે સમય પસાર કરવા કેનેડા ગયો, પરંતુ ટૂંક સમયમાં વાનકુવરમાં મૃત્યુ પામ્યો.